kandace

Kandace Presents . . . The African American Masters of Medicine & Science

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Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931) --- Pioneering Surgeon, Founder of Provident Hospital

Daniel Hale Williams was a pioneering surgeon who performed one of the world's first surgical procedures on the human heart.  He was also at the forefront of the modernization of healthcare, adopting the then controversial and then radical hygienic practices recommended by the radical Loius Pasteur and Joseph Lister.

Daniel H Williams hailed from humble roots, the eighth child of a barber, Daniel Hale Williams Sr.    When his father died, Williams was sent to live with family in Baltimore and then Illinois.  While in Illinois he became a shoemaker's apprentice and barber. In 1878, Williams worked in the office of Henry Palmer, a  surgeon.  This experience triggered an interest in medicine, and in 1880 he enrolled in the Chicago Medical College, receiving a Doctor of Medicine degree three years later.

Upon graduation Williams opened a medical practice in Chicago and also taught anatomy at Chicago Medical College.  Williams eagerly embraced innovative techniques in medical procedures and sanitary conditions, adopting recently-discovered sterilization procedures in regard to germ transmission and prevention.  Yet, despite his talent, he, like other African American physicians  of the era, faced discrimination with regard to staffing privileges at hospitals.  To circumvent this discrimination, in 1891 Williams co-founded  Provident Hospital and Training School Association in a three-story building on Chicago’s South Side.  Provident was the first African American-controlled hospital in the nation.  In addition to being the first medical facility to have an interracial staff and the first training facility for African American nurses in the US., Provident was also one of the most modern and cutting edge hospitals not just in America but in the world.  Provident grew and prospered during Williams’s tenure as physician-owner (1891-1912), in large part because of  its extremely high success rate in patient recovery: 87 percent.

In 1893, Williams boldly performed open heart surgery on a young African man
, James Cornish, who had received severe stab wounds in his chest.  Despite having a limited array of surgical equipment and medicine (no anesthesia, no blood transfusion), Williams opened Cornish’s chest cavity and operated on his heart without the patient dying from infection.  Cornish recovered within 51 days and went on to live for many years.  Williams' reputation for excellence to his appointment as Chief Surgeon at Freedmen’s Hospital in Washington, D.C.   Freedmen's had been created to serve the newly emancipated African Americans who had flooded into the nation's capital in the wake of the Civil War.  Williams reorganized the struggling Freedmen’s Hospital, instituting a training school for black nurses, employing a multiracial staff, improving surgical procedures, developing ambulance services, and providing staff opportunities for numerous black physicians.

In 1895 Williams was one of the co-founders the 
National Medical Association (NMA), an organization founded in response to the all-white American Medical Association's exclusion of African American physicians. In 1898, Williams left Freedmen’s Hospital, married Washington, D.C. schoolteacher Alice Johnson, and returned with her to Chicago where he resumed his position at Provident Hospital.  
A year after settling in Chicago, Williams became affiliated with Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where for the next two decades he was a visiting clinical surgeon. He was also now invited to work at larger hospitals including Cook County Hospital, and at St. Luke’s Hospital on Chicago’s South Side from 1907 to 1926.  In 1926, Williams retired from St. Luke’s 
after surviving a debilitating stroke.  He lived out his retirement years in IdlewildMichigan, an all-black resort community, until his death on August 4, 1931. 

 

 

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This is Kandace’s annual tribute to Black History month.  While Kandace and I agree on little, I appreciate the history lesson.

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4 hours ago, kandace said:

Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931) --- Pioneering Surgeon, Founder of Provident Hospital

Daniel Hale Williams was a pioneering surgeon who performed one of the world's first surgical procedures on the human heart.  He was also at the forefront of the modernization of healthcare, adopting the then controversial and then radical hygienic practices recommended by the radical Loius Pasteur and Joseph Lister.

Daniel H Williams hailed from humble roots, the eighth child of a barber, Daniel Hale Williams Sr.    When his father died, Williams was sent to live with family in Baltimore and then Illinois.  While in Illinois he became a shoemaker's apprentice and barber. In 1878, Williams worked in the office of Henry Palmer, a  surgeon.  This experience triggered an interest in medicine, and in 1880 he enrolled in the Chicago Medical College, receiving a Doctor of Medicine degree three years later.

Upon graduation Williams opened a medical practice in Chicago and also taught anatomy at Chicago Medical College.  Williams eagerly embraced innovative techniques in medical procedures and sanitary conditions, adopting recently-discovered sterilization procedures in regard to germ transmission and prevention.  Yet, despite his talent, he, like other African American physicians  of the era, faced discrimination with regard to staffing privileges at hospitals.  To circumvent this discrimination, in 1891 Williams co-founded  Provident Hospital and Training School Association in a three-story building on Chicago’s South Side.  Provident was the first African American-controlled hospital in the nation.  In addition to being the first medical facility to have an interracial staff and the first training facility for African American nurses in the US., Provident was also one of the most modern and cutting edge hospitals not just in America but in the world.  Provident grew and prospered during Williams’s tenure as physician-owner (1891-1912), in large part because of  its extremely high success rate in patient recovery: 87 percent.

In 1893, Williams boldly performed open heart surgery on a young African man
, James Cornish, who had received severe stab wounds in his chest.  Despite having a limited array of surgical equipment and medicine (no anesthesia, no blood transfusion), Williams opened Cornish’s chest cavity and operated on his heart without the patient dying from infection.  Cornish recovered within 51 days and went on to live for many years.  Williams' reputation for excellence to his appointment as Chief Surgeon at Freedmen’s Hospital in Washington, D.C.   Freedmen's had been created to serve the newly emancipated African Americans who had flooded into the nation's capital in the wake of the Civil War.  Williams reorganized the struggling Freedmen’s Hospital, instituting a training school for black nurses, employing a multiracial staff, improving surgical procedures, developing ambulance services, and providing staff opportunities for numerous black physicians.

In 1895 Williams was one of the co-founders the 
National Medical Association (NMA), an organization founded in response to the all-white American Medical Association's exclusion of African American physicians. In 1898, Williams left Freedmen’s Hospital, married Washington, D.C. schoolteacher Alice Johnson, and returned with her to Chicago where he resumed his position at Provident Hospital.  
A year after settling in Chicago, Williams became affiliated with Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where for the next two decades he was a visiting clinical surgeon. He was also now invited to work at larger hospitals including Cook County Hospital, and at St. Luke’s Hospital on Chicago’s South Side from 1907 to 1926.  In 1926, Williams retired from St. Luke’s 
after surviving a debilitating stroke.  He lived out his retirement years in IdlewildMichigan, an all-black resort community, until his death on August 4, 1931. 

 

 

Love when you do these series. Thanks Kandace.  It's Black History Month and of course the trump supporters call this being consumed with color.  Shortest month of the year.

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8 hours ago, EgyptKang said:

Shortest month of the year.

Blame Abraham Lincoln's and Frederick Douglass' parents for that.

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https://www.bizjournals.com/baltimore/news/2018/01/16/umbc-produces-more-black-m-d-phd-graduates-than.html

University of Maryland, Baltimore County produces more black M.D. and Ph.D. degree-earners than any other college in the country, according to new data from the Association of American Medical Colleges. 

In total, 44 UMBC alumni who identify as African American or black earned M.D.-Ph.D. degrees. These degrees indicate a combined scientific and medical education and are typically sought by students who want to conduct research in a medical setting. Since 2000, 413 black men and women have earned M.D.-Ph.D.s from institutions across the country — more than 10 percent of those were UMBC alumni.

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8 hours ago, EgyptKang said:

Despite having a limited array of surgical equipment and medicine (no anesthesia, no blood transfusion), Williams opened Cornish’s chest cavity and operated on his heart without the patient dying from infection.  Cornish recovered within 51 days and went on to live for many years.

Damn! I don’t even want to think about laying on that operating table!  And before antibiotics as well. 

Sounds like Dr. Williams knew his craft well. 

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For current times let's not forget the achievements of the brilliant Dr. Ben Carson.

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14 minutes ago, com6063 said:

For current times let's not forget the achievements of the brilliant Dr. Ben Carson.

He was a great doctor. He is a stupid politician.

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6 minutes ago, stevez51 said:

There's a lot of that done on here .......

It applies to you too

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12 hours ago, EgyptKang said:

  Shortest month of the year.

Shortest month of the year, but longest "quote" size allowed on here to make up for it, or so it seems.  

Good to know for future reference. 

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5 minutes ago, Ode2Joy said:

Shortest month of the year, but longest "quote" size allowed on here to make up for it, or so it seems.  

Good to know for future reference. 

You will not get anywhere with that ......

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44 minutes ago, ericpd said:

Oh I got it Sprightly,... I'm not lost on that. I was trying to make a funny,... you know "Dr. Who"? BBC America network? Guess I did a poor job of making maybe a not too appropriate joke. Apologies!

Thank you. There are many parents who are thankful to him. :) Of course there are those who are not as well.

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1 hour ago, EgyptKang said:

He was a great doctor. He is a stupid politician.

Agreed....he was an excellent Dr. He should have stopped there.

Now he appears to be and idiot savant sometimes. And that is a shame. But that is what Trump is doing destroying the country by putting people in places that have zip experience in the dept.

Oppppss strike that.....he does put people in place who have wanted to dismantle things for years.....like the EPA and finance and consumer protection. :mad:

Edited by Guido2

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Dr. Carson was a great surgeon. It is a shame that he is currently destroying the Department of Health and Human Services and miring it in personal scandal. 

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31 minutes ago, Ode2Joy said:

Shortest month of the year, but longest "quote" size allowed on here to make up for it, or so it seems.  

Good to know for future reference. 

Can you cite the quote?  I didn't find the exact wording in the OP at the link.

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1 hour ago, Manny said:

Who are you to tell anyone what to do around here? 

I know how too, start a thread about it.

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15 hours ago, EgyptKang said:

Love when you do these series. Thanks Kandace.  It's Black History Month and of course the trump supporters call this being consumed with color.  Shortest month of the year.

Does she do it every year?

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4 hours ago, Sprightly said:

Thank you. There are many parents who are thankful to him. :) Of course there are those who are not as well.

I forgot that this is Sunspot, where every thread or post under the sun must have some political point or insult against a poster. Just wouldn't be the same if we didn't get a jab in, right?

God bless Dr. Carson, a truly great black man. Far better than I will ever be.

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2 hours ago, Dinglehopper said:

Does she do it every year?

As long as I can remember.  

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55 minutes ago, com6063 said:

God bless Dr. Carson, a truly great black man. Far better than I will ever b

As a Dr?  Yes.  As an administrator?  I don’t know that he has proven himself to be great 

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Norbert Rilleaux (1806-1894) --- Chemical Engineering Pioneer, Revolutionizer of the Sugar Industry

Nortbert Rilleux was the creator of multi-effect evaporator, a device that enabled efficient, fuel saving industrial evaporation that produced high quality sugar.  Rilleaux was one of the first modern chemical engineers, and the results of his breakthrough were felt from America to Egypt. 

Norbert Rilleaux was born a gens de couleur libres, a free man of color, in a society that reposed upon the enslaved labor of persons of  African descent.  His life was paradox of freedom and bondage, liberty & privilege mixed with rigid social restrictions and collective debasement.  Rilleaux was a product of placage, a system of interracial concubinage in which women of color, both slave and free, entered into long term sexual unions with Caucasian men.  This system was established  throughout the state of Louisiana and also some southern port cities, such as Mobile, Alabama, that were subject to French/Catholic influence. 

Such arrangements often produced children.  Indeed, Rilleaux was the eldest of 7 children of Vincent Rilleaux, a planation owner and inventor, and Constance Vivant, a free woman of color.  Norrbert was a highly intelligent child, and enjoyed intellectual stimulation from his inventor father.  His father sent Norbert to Catholic schools and upon noting the boy's keen engineering aptitude, sent him to school in France, where he matriculated at the elite Ecole Centrale in Paris, one of that nation's top engineering schools. By age 24, Rillieux was an instructor in applied mechanics at the Ecole Centrale. Around 1830, he published a series of papers on steam engines and steam power.  While residing in France, Rillieux began working on the multiple effect evaporator. George Meade, a sugar expert, wrote in 1946: “The great scientific contribution which Rillieux made was in his recognition of the steam economies which can be effected by repeated use of the latent heat in the steam and vapors.” In essence Rilleaux discovered a method for harnessing the energy of vapors rising from the boiling sugar cane syrup and passing those vapors through several chambers, thus producing sugar crystals.  This technique became the foundation for all modern industrial evaporation techniques.

Rillieux refined his invention over the next decade.  The success of his invention was due in large parts to his sponsorship by the prominent planter and lawyer, Judah Benjamin. Benjamin hired Rilleaux to install his perfected apparatus on the former's Bellechasse Plantation. Benjamin, a Jewish lawyer would later serve as secretary of war in the Confederacy.

The success of his evaporator  made Rillieux, according to a contemporary, “the most sought after engineer in Louisiana,” and he acquired a large fortune.  However, despite his genius and wealth, Rillieux was still, under the law, “a person of color. ”  He could visit sugar plantations to install his evaporator but he could not sleep in the plantation house.  To resolve the issue, some planters, provided Rillieux with a special house with slave servants while he visited as “a consultant.”   However, as the ominous clouds of the approaching Civil War gathered, Rilleaux found his social privileges subverted. Even the most affluent free persons of color were faced with the imposition of new restrictions on their ability to move about the streets of New Orleans and other draconian laws.   Rillieux keenly felt the sting of rising contempt for the free population when his elaborate plan to eliminate the recurrent Yellow Fever epidemics that menaced New Orleans was rejected after aa concerted smear campaign against him in the state legislature (He devised an elaborate plan for eliminating the outbreak by draining the swamplands surrounding the city and improving the existing sewer system, thus removing the breeding ground for the insects and therefore the ability for them to pass on the disease).  He also encountered difficulty with his application for a patent when the officials assumed he was a slave and thus not eligible to apply for a patent.  Disheartened, Rilleaux packed his bags and left for France, where he lived the remainder of his days, defending his patents and becoming engrossed in the new field of Egyptology.

 

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3 hours ago, kandace said:

Norbert Rilleaux (1806-1894) --- Chemical Engineering Pioneer, Revolutionizer of the Sugar Industry

Nortbert Rilleux was the creator of multi-effect evaporator, a device that enabled efficient, fuel saving industrial evaporation that produced high quality sugar.  Rilleaux was one of the first modern chemical engineers, and the results of his breakthrough were felt from America to Egypt. 

Norbert Rilleaux was born a gens de couleur libres, a free man of color, in a society that reposed upon the enslaved labor of persons of  African descent.  His life was paradox of freedom and bondage, liberty & privilege mixed with rigid social restrictions and collective debasement.  Rilleaux was a product of placage, a system of interracial concubinage in which women of color, both slave and free, entered into long term sexual unions with Caucasian men.  This system was established  throughout the state of Louisiana and also some southern port cities, such as Mobile, Alabama, that were subject to French/Catholic influence. 

Such arrangements often produced children.  Indeed, Rilleaux was the eldest of 7 children of Vincent Rilleaux, a planation owner and inventor, and Constance Vivant, a free woman of color.  Norrbert was a highly intelligent child, and enjoyed intellectual stimulation from his inventor father.  His father sent Norbert to Catholic schools and upon noting the boy's keen engineering aptitude, sent him to school in France, where he matriculated at the elite Ecole Centrale in Paris, one of that nation's top engineering schools. By age 24, Rillieux was an instructor in applied mechanics at the Ecole Centrale. Around 1830, he published a series of papers on steam engines and steam power.  While residing in France, Rillieux began working on the multiple effect evaporator. George Meade, a sugar expert, wrote in 1946: “The great scientific contribution which Rillieux made was in his recognition of the steam economies which can be effected by repeated use of the latent heat in the steam and vapors.” In essence Rilleaux discovered a method for harnessing the energy of vapors rising from the boiling sugar cane syrup and passing those vapors through several chambers, thus producing sugar crystals.  This technique became the foundation for all modern industrial evaporation techniques.

Rillieux refined his invention over the next decade.  The success of his invention was due in large parts to his sponsorship by the prominent planter and lawyer, Judah Benjamin. Benjamin hired Rilleaux to install his perfected apparatus on the former's Bellechasse Plantation. Benjamin, a Jewish lawyer would later serve as secretary of war in the Confederacy.

The success of his evaporator  made Rillieux, according to a contemporary, “the most sought after engineer in Louisiana,” and he acquired a large fortune.  However, despite his genius and wealth, Rillieux was still, under the law, “a person of color. ”  He could visit sugar plantations to install his evaporator but he could not sleep in the plantation house.  To resolve the issue, some planters, provided Rillieux with a special house with slave servants while he visited as “a consultant.”   However, as the ominous clouds of the approaching Civil War gathered, Rilleaux found his social privileges subverted. Even the most affluent free persons of color were faced with the imposition of new restrictions on their ability to move about the streets of New Orleans and other draconian laws.   Rillieux keenly felt the sting of rising contempt for the free population when his elaborate plan to eliminate the recurrent Yellow Fever epidemics that menaced New Orleans was rejected after aa concerted smear campaign against him in the state legislature (He devised an elaborate plan for eliminating the outbreak by draining the swamplands surrounding the city and improving the existing sewer system, thus removing the breeding ground for the insects and therefore the ability for them to pass on the disease).  He also encountered difficulty with his application for a patent when the officials assumed he was a slave and thus not eligible to apply for a patent.  Disheartened, Rilleaux packed his bags and left for France, where he lived the remainder of his days, defending his patents and becoming engrossed in the new field of Egyptology.

 

An idiot once said to me: "where are all the black scientists? LMAO!!!". 

I had to explain to the idiot:

1. We were never taught about them in school because HIStory is written by white men.

2. Black scientists usually keep a low profile so that racists won't try to sabotage their work.

Of course the idiot didn't understand.

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On 2/4/2018 at 2:30 PM, Dinglehopper said:

Does she do it every year?

Yes. It's always interesting.

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On 2/4/2018 at 4:05 PM, com6063 said:

I forgot that this is Sunspot, where every thread or post under the sun must have some political point or insult against a poster. Just wouldn't be the same if we didn't get a jab in, right?

God bless Dr. Carson, a truly great black man. Far better than I will ever be.

Did you ever read his autobiography? Kind of a troubled soul.

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