kandace

Kandace Presents . . . The African American Masters of Medicine & Science

56 posts in this topic

On 2/4/2018 at 4:05 PM, com6063 said:

I forgot that this is Sunspot, where every thread or post under the sun must have some political point or insult against a poster. Just wouldn't be the same if we didn't get a jab in, right?

God bless Dr. Carson, a truly great black man. Far better than I will ever be.

Did you ever read his autobiography? Kind of a troubled soul.

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On 2/4/2018 at 10:49 AM, com6063 said:

For current times let's not forget the achievements of the brilliant Dr. Ben Carson.

I'm sure he'll be featured here some time this month.

Edited by Boobie

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Kandance, May I suggest a nominee for your series: Bennet Omalu.

Not only a great doctor but a really brave pioneer. Took on the whole damn NFL.

Edited by ms maggie

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Garrett Morgan (1877-1963) –  Pioneering Safety Engineer

 Garrett Morgan was born in Kentucky, the year after America’s Centennial, to emancipated slaves.  His father, Sydney Morgan, was the son of Confederate Colonel John H. Morgan, of Morgan’s Raiders fame.  His mother, Elizabeth Reed, was also half Native American.  Although his formal schooling ended after the sixth grade he was fortunate enough to have access to a tutor who instructed him in various subjects for several years afterward.   At the age of 16, Morgan travelled to the bustling city of Cincinnati in search of employment.  A few years later, he moved to Cleveland, where he obtained employment repairing sewing machines for a clothing manufacturer.   He steadily advanced in his understanding of the mechanical principles of machinery, and gained a reputation as an ingenious machinist which in turn enabled him to open his own sewing machine repair business and clothing store.  During the course of his work, he stumbled upon a chemical that straightened hair.  This became the foundation of a hair care business, the G. A. Morgan Hair Refining Company, which grew to include his patented hair straightening cream, a hair dye, and a hair straightening comb.  This business and his clothing store, would become the primary source of Morgan’s wealth.   Morgan used the income from his businesses to turn away from simply repairing machines and towards inventing his own devices.  In 1912, he invented and received a patent for a smoke hood, a device he had been promoted to create after witnesses firemen struggle to rescue fire victims in the midst of noxious flames.  In 1914 Morgan founded a company called the National Safety Device Company in 1914 to market his device.

 He travelled throughout America to sell his invention.  He was aware that racial prejudices would be barrier to selling his creation.  So he went IncogNegro.  Sometimes he would hire a Caucasian actor to pretend to be the inventor. Sometimes he would assume the guise of a Native American, “Big Chief Mason” a purported full-blooded Indian from the Walpole Island Indian Reserve in Canada. He demonstrated the device by building a noxious fire fueled by tar, sulfur, formaldehyde and manure inside an enclosed tent. Disguised as "Big Chief Mason,"  he would enter the tent full of black smoke, and would remain there for 20 minutes before emerging unharmed.  The invention earned Morgan the first prize at the Second International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation in New York City in 1914.  Morgan would be thrust into national headlines in 1916 when he and his brother used his breathing apparatus to rescue several men who became trapped in a tunnel after an explosion under Lake Erie.  However, Morgan’s racial identity was exposed during the rescue, and the predictable racial backlash ensued.  Local officials ignored his contribution to the rescue, however, fire departments throughout the country, lacking an alternative, ordered his breathing apparatus.  Over the next several years, Morgan refined his device so that it became a true gas mask.

In 1923, Morgan created a new kind of traffic signal, one with a warning light to alert drivers that they would need to stop.  Morgan’s device was one of many on the market at the time, but was one of the more efficient versions.    He quickly acquired rights to the device in the United States, Britain and Canada.  He eventually sold the rights for the signal to General Electric for $40,000 (worth $569,997.69 in today's dollars) In addition to his technical interests, Morgan was also active in the AA community of his day.  He was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, donated to AA colleges and opened an all-AA country club. Additionally, in 1920, he launched the African-American newspaper the Cleveland Call (later named the Call and Post).

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Granville T. Woods (1856-1910) Master Engineer of the Electric Age

 

The life of Granville T. Woods parallels somewhat that of garret Morgan, despite the fact that the former was born nearly two decades before the latter and died nearly 5 decades earlier.  Like Morgan, Woods let school at an early age (age 10) and after an apprenticeship to a machinist also learned blacksmithing.  Like Morgan, Woods continued his schooling while working and learning the machinist repair trade.  Ove the next decade Woods would work as a fireman and then engineer. However, despite his talent he would always be stymied by racial discrimination.  In 1880, Woods moved to Cincinnati and established his own machine shop, which eventually became the Woods Electrical Company.  There he would labor to invent devices that resulted in more than 60 patents.

In December 1884, Woods obtained a patent for a telephone transmitter, an apparatus that conducted sound over an electrical current. Whhile Alexander Graham Bell had already developed a telephonic device almost a decade earlier, Woodss instrument was considerably superior to any models then in use.  The physical properties by which the device operated are still employed in modern telephones. The patent was purchased by  Alexander Graham bell's American Bell Telephone Company. The lucrative patent sale aabled Woods to devote himself  entirely to his own research.  One of his most important inventions was the "troller," a grooved metal wheel that enabled street cars (later known as "trolleys") to collect electric power from overhead wires.

Woods also created the first telegraph service that allowed messages to be sent from moving trains. This invention dramatically improved railroad safety. Woods also invented several improvements to the airbrakes used on locomotives and other large machines. Woods' patent for the train telegraph was challenged by Thomas Edison.  The two went to court.  Woods won.  Edison offered to make Woods a business partner.  Woods side eyed Edison and said, "Naaahhhh."  Woods' Blackdar detected Edison's nefariousness, so Woods decided to remain independent. 

Woods, like Morgan, adopted a pseudo-identity to buffer the vicious racial prejudice of his era.  He would often refer to himself as an Australian Aborigine rather than an AA.

 

 

 

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On 2/6/2018 at 10:42 PM, ms maggie said:

Kandance, May I suggest a nominee for your series: Bennet Omalu.

Not only a great doctor but a really brave pioneer. Took on the whole damn NFL.

Good nominee.  I will definitely include him.

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I think I told you about Vivien Thomas when you did another one of these. Are duplicates allowed? Thomas as a medical pioneer who generally did not receive due credit for his work.

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14 minutes ago, Evil Yoda said:

I think I told you about Vivien Thomas when you did another one of these. Are duplicates allowed? Thomas as a medical pioneer who generally did not receive due credit for his work.

I plan to profile Thomas.  Thanks for the reminder.

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On 2/3/2018 at 6:15 PM, kandace said:

Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931) --- Pioneering Surgeon, Founder of Provident Hospital

Daniel Hale Williams was a pioneering surgeon who performed one of the world's first surgical procedures on the human heart.  He was also at the forefront of the modernization of healthcare, adopting the then controversial and then radical hygienic practices recommended by the radical Loius Pasteur and Joseph Lister.

Daniel H Williams hailed from humble roots, the eighth child of a barber, Daniel Hale Williams Sr.    When his father died, Williams was sent to live with family in Baltimore and then Illinois.  While in Illinois he became a shoemaker's apprentice and barber. In 1878, Williams worked in the office of Henry Palmer, a  surgeon.  This experience triggered an interest in medicine, and in 1880 he enrolled in the Chicago Medical College, receiving a Doctor of Medicine degree three years later.

Upon graduation Williams opened a medical practice in Chicago and also taught anatomy at Chicago Medical College.  Williams eagerly embraced innovative techniques in medical procedures and sanitary conditions, adopting recently-discovered sterilization procedures in regard to germ transmission and prevention.  Yet, despite his talent, he, like other African American physicians  of the era, faced discrimination with regard to staffing privileges at hospitals.  To circumvent this discrimination, in 1891 Williams co-founded  Provident Hospital and Training School Association in a three-story building on Chicago’s South Side.  Provident was the first African American-controlled hospital in the nation.  In addition to being the first medical facility to have an interracial staff and the first training facility for African American nurses in the US., Provident was also one of the most modern and cutting edge hospitals not just in America but in the world.  Provident grew and prospered during Williams’s tenure as physician-owner (1891-1912), in large part because of  its extremely high success rate in patient recovery: 87 percent.

In 1893, Williams boldly performed open heart surgery on a young African man
, James Cornish, who had received severe stab wounds in his chest.  Despite having a limited array of surgical equipment and medicine (no anesthesia, no blood transfusion), Williams opened Cornish’s chest cavity and operated on his heart without the patient dying from infection.  Cornish recovered within 51 days and went on to live for many years.  Williams' reputation for excellence to his appointment as Chief Surgeon at Freedmen’s Hospital in Washington, D.C.   Freedmen's had been created to serve the newly emancipated African Americans who had flooded into the nation's capital in the wake of the Civil War.  Williams reorganized the struggling Freedmen’s Hospital, instituting a training school for black nurses, employing a multiracial staff, improving surgical procedures, developing ambulance services, and providing staff opportunities for numerous black physicians.

In 1895 Williams was one of the co-founders the 
National Medical Association (NMA), an organization founded in response to the all-white American Medical Association's exclusion of African American physicians. In 1898, Williams left Freedmen’s Hospital, married Washington, D.C. schoolteacher Alice Johnson, and returned with her to Chicago where he resumed his position at Provident Hospital.  
A year after settling in Chicago, Williams became affiliated with Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, where for the next two decades he was a visiting clinical surgeon. He was also now invited to work at larger hospitals including Cook County Hospital, and at St. Luke’s Hospital on Chicago’s South Side from 1907 to 1926.  In 1926, Williams retired from St. Luke’s 
after surviving a debilitating stroke.  He lived out his retirement years in IdlewildMichigan, an all-black resort community, until his death on August 4, 1931. 

 

 

Actually, Dr. Willaims never performed any surgery on the heart. What he did, and he was not the first to do it, is he performed a surgery on the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart. The first pericardium surgery was performed by Francesco Romero (a Spanish physician) in 1801, the second by Dominique Jean Larrye and the third by Henry Dalton in 1891. Dr. Williams' operation on the pericardium, not the heart was performed in 1893.

The first surgery on the heart itself was performed by Axel Cappelen on September 4, 1895, at Oslo University Hospital. He litigated a bleeding coronary artery in a 24 year old man who had been stabbed in the left axilla which Dr. Cappelen accessed through a left thoracotomy. The patient awoke and seemed fine for 24 hours but became ill with fever and died 3 days later from mediastinitis

.The first successful heart surgery, without any complications, was performed by Dr.Ludig Rehn of Frankfurt Germany, who repaired a stab wound to a right ventricle on September 7, 1896.

Anyone can check and verify this.

 

 

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On 2/4/2018 at 10:49 AM, com6063 said:

For current times let's not forget the achievements of the brilliant Dr. Ben Carson.

What achievements are those?

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8 minutes ago, prodigalson1 said:

What achievements are those?

You can Google it; far too many to list here, starting when he was a neurosurgeon at Johns Hopkins.

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3 minutes ago, com6063 said:

You can Google it; far too many to list here, starting when he was a neurosurgeon at Johns Hopkins.

I am not being a wise guy. Can you name a couple of his acheivemnets off the top of your head? Can you name one? I am googling something else at the moment. I do know how to use google.

 

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8 minutes ago, prodigalson1 said:

I am not being a wise guy. Can you name a couple of his acheivemnets off the top of your head? Can you name one? I am googling something else at the moment. I do know how to use google.

 

Separating conjoined twins, youngest chief of neurosurgery at Hopkins ever (I think), thousands and thousands of successful surgeries, the list goes on for quite a while. Off the top of my head. Beat the odds of being from a poor inner city neighborhood and going to the Ivy League. Just a very successful and spiritual man to boot. Love him. I hope this information is helpful.

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29 minutes ago, com6063 said:

Separating conjoined twins, youngest chief of neurosurgery at Hopkins ever (I think), thousands and thousands of successful surgeries, the list goes on for quite a while. Off the top of my head. Beat the odds of being from a poor inner city neighborhood and going to the Ivy League. Just a very successful and spiritual man to boot. Love him. I hope this information is helpful.

Thank you.

Now I will go look him up to see how remarkable he is, not just among black doctors, but among doctors as a whole. I am thinking and have thought that what he has done, has been done by dozens and dozens and dozens (100s?) of white and Asian doctors before him and after him, including some from poor environments. I hope to find if there are 5 black doctors who have accomplished what he has, which and if there are not 5 black doctors like him, I would say that his greatest note is for simply being black, rather than for being a great or field breaking physician

I am not being a wise guy. I will not continue this particular discussion if it seems that I am offending anyone here by my curiosity as offense is not my intent. I will seek the answers in private and leave people to think about him as they wish.

His success and spirituality are not exclusive to him in similar accomplishments in other fields and are shared by many, many, other black people, known and little known.

Thank you again.

Edited by prodigalson1

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On 2/6/2018 at 6:29 PM, kandace said:

Norbert Rilleaux (1806-1894) --- Chemical Engineering Pioneer, Revolutionizer of the Sugar Industry

Nortbert Rilleux was the creator of multi-effect evaporator, a device that enabled efficient, fuel saving industrial evaporation that produced high quality sugar.  Rilleaux was one of the first modern chemical engineers, and the results of his breakthrough were felt from America to Egypt. 

Norbert Rilleaux was born a gens de couleur libres, a free man of color, in a society that reposed upon the enslaved labor of persons of  African descent.  His life was paradox of freedom and bondage, liberty & privilege mixed with rigid social restrictions and collective debasement.  Rilleaux was a product of placage, a system of interracial concubinage in which women of color, both slave and free, entered into long term sexual unions with Caucasian men.  This system was established  throughout the state of Louisiana and also some southern port cities, such as Mobile, Alabama, that were subject to French/Catholic influence. 

Such arrangements often produced children.  Indeed, Rilleaux was the eldest of 7 children of Vincent Rilleaux, a planation owner and inventor, and Constance Vivant, a free woman of color.  Norrbert was a highly intelligent child, and enjoyed intellectual stimulation from his inventor father.  His father sent Norbert to Catholic schools and upon noting the boy's keen engineering aptitude, sent him to school in France, where he matriculated at the elite Ecole Centrale in Paris, one of that nation's top engineering schools. By age 24, Rillieux was an instructor in applied mechanics at the Ecole Centrale. Around 1830, he published a series of papers on steam engines and steam power.  While residing in France, Rillieux began working on the multiple effect evaporator. George Meade, a sugar expert, wrote in 1946: “The great scientific contribution which Rillieux made was in his recognition of the steam economies which can be effected by repeated use of the latent heat in the steam and vapors.” In essence Rilleaux discovered a method for harnessing the energy of vapors rising from the boiling sugar cane syrup and passing those vapors through several chambers, thus producing sugar crystals.  This technique became the foundation for all modern industrial evaporation techniques.

Rillieux refined his invention over the next decade.  The success of his invention was due in large parts to his sponsorship by the prominent planter and lawyer, Judah Benjamin. Benjamin hired Rilleaux to install his perfected apparatus on the former's Bellechasse Plantation. Benjamin, a Jewish lawyer would later serve as secretary of war in the Confederacy.

The success of his evaporator  made Rillieux, according to a contemporary, “the most sought after engineer in Louisiana,” and he acquired a large fortune.  However, despite his genius and wealth, Rillieux was still, under the law, “a person of color. ”  He could visit sugar plantations to install his evaporator but he could not sleep in the plantation house.  To resolve the issue, some planters, provided Rillieux with a special house with slave servants while he visited as “a consultant.”   However, as the ominous clouds of the approaching Civil War gathered, Rilleaux found his social privileges subverted. Even the most affluent free persons of color were faced with the imposition of new restrictions on their ability to move about the streets of New Orleans and other draconian laws.   Rillieux keenly felt the sting of rising contempt for the free population when his elaborate plan to eliminate the recurrent Yellow Fever epidemics that menaced New Orleans was rejected after aa concerted smear campaign against him in the state legislature (He devised an elaborate plan for eliminating the outbreak by draining the swamplands surrounding the city and improving the existing sewer system, thus removing the breeding ground for the insects and therefore the ability for them to pass on the disease).  He also encountered difficulty with his application for a patent when the officials assumed he was a slave and thus not eligible to apply for a patent.  Disheartened, Rilleaux packed his bags and left for France, where he lived the remainder of his days, defending his patents and becoming engrossed in the new field of Egyptology.

 

Mostly true.

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4 hours ago, kandace said:

Garrett Morgan (1877-1963) –  Pioneering Safety Engineer

 Garrett Morgan was born in Kentucky, the year after America’s Centennial, to emancipated slaves.  His father, Sydney Morgan, was the son of Confederate Colonel John H. Morgan, of Morgan’s Raiders fame.  His mother, Elizabeth Reed, was also half Native American.  Although his formal schooling ended after the sixth grade he was fortunate enough to have access to a tutor who instructed him in various subjects for several years afterward.   At the age of 16, Morgan travelled to the bustling city of Cincinnati in search of employment.  A few years later, he moved to Cleveland, where he obtained employment repairing sewing machines for a clothing manufacturer.   He steadily advanced in his understanding of the mechanical principles of machinery, and gained a reputation as an ingenious machinist which in turn enabled him to open his own sewing machine repair business and clothing store.  During the course of his work, he stumbled upon a chemical that straightened hair.  This became the foundation of a hair care business, the G. A. Morgan Hair Refining Company, which grew to include his patented hair straightening cream, a hair dye, and a hair straightening comb.  This business and his clothing store, would become the primary source of Morgan’s wealth.   Morgan used the income from his businesses to turn away from simply repairing machines and towards inventing his own devices.  In 1912, he invented and received a patent for a smoke hood, a device he had been promoted to create after witnesses firemen struggle to rescue fire victims in the midst of noxious flames.  In 1914 Morgan founded a company called the National Safety Device Company in 1914 to market his device.

 He travelled throughout America to sell his invention.  He was aware that racial prejudices would be barrier to selling his creation.  So he went IncogNegro.  Sometimes he would hire a Caucasian actor to pretend to be the inventor. Sometimes he would assume the guise of a Native American, “Big Chief Mason” a purported full-blooded Indian from the Walpole Island Indian Reserve in Canada. He demonstrated the device by building a noxious fire fueled by tar, sulfur, formaldehyde and manure inside an enclosed tent. Disguised as "Big Chief Mason,"  he would enter the tent full of black smoke, and would remain there for 20 minutes before emerging unharmed.  The invention earned Morgan the first prize at the Second International Exposition of Safety and Sanitation in New York City in 1914.  Morgan would be thrust into national headlines in 1916 when he and his brother used his breathing apparatus to rescue several men who became trapped in a tunnel after an explosion under Lake Erie.  However, Morgan’s racial identity was exposed during the rescue, and the predictable racial backlash ensued.  Local officials ignored his contribution to the rescue, however, fire departments throughout the country, lacking an alternative, ordered his breathing apparatus.  Over the next several years, Morgan refined his device so that it became a true gas mask.

In 1923, Morgan created a new kind of traffic signal, one with a warning light to alert drivers that they would need to stop.  Morgan’s device was one of many on the market at the time, but was one of the more efficient versions.    He quickly acquired rights to the device in the United States, Britain and Canada.  He eventually sold the rights for the signal to General Electric for $40,000 (worth $569,997.69 in today's dollars) In addition to his technical interests, Morgan was also active in the AA community of his day.  He was a member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, donated to AA colleges and opened an all-AA country club. Additionally, in 1920, he launched the African-American newspaper the Cleveland Call (later named the Call and Post).

Many black history websites and even some black schools credit him with inventing the first "gas mask" and the "first traffic light" both of which were invented by white people.

The invention of the gas mask predates Morgan's breathing device by
several decades. Early versions were constructed by the Scottish chemist
John Stenhouse in 1854 and the physicist John Tyndall in the 1870s,
among many other inventors prior to World War I

I can find no patent awarded to him that he received for any type of "gas mask". Perhaps someone here can correct me but either way, the true modern "gas mask" was invented by James Bert Garner and used in 1915 during WWI.

Regarding his "traffic light," I can not find a reference in his 1923 patent to any type of a "light" nor in his patent diagram published in the same year. Again someone may be able to correct me.

The first known traffic signal appeared in London in 1868 near the
Houses of Parliament. Designed by JP Knight, it featured two semaphore
arms and two gas lamps. The earliest electric traffic lights include
Lester Wire's two-color version set up in Salt Lake City circa 1912,
James Hoge's system (US patent #1,251,666) installed in Cleveland by the
American Traffic Signal Company in 1914, and William Potts' 4-way
red-yellow-green lights introduced in Detroit beginning in 1920. New
York City traffic towers began flashing three-color signals also in
1920.

Garrett Morgan's cross-shaped, crank-operated semaphore was not
among the first half-hundred patented traffic signals, nor was it
"automatic" as is sometimes claimed, nor did it play any part in the
evolution of the modern traffic light.

Finally, if his father was the son of a Confederate Colonel and his mother was half Indian why is he listed as black? If anything he is mixed and mixed people are not more one race than the other. That's a fact.

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On 2/6/2018 at 10:27 PM, EgyptKang said:

An idiot once said to me: "where are all the black scientists? LMAO!!!". 

I had to explain to the idiot:

1. We were never taught about them in school because HIStory is written by white men.

2. Black scientists usually keep a low profile so that racists won't try to sabotage their work.

Of course the idiot didn't understand.

1

A list of notable inventors and their inventions.

Timeline Of Historic Inventions

List of oldest universities in continuous operation

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4 hours ago, kandace said:

Granville T. Woods (1856-1910) Master Engineer of the Electric Age

 

The life of Granville T. Woods parallels somewhat that of garret Morgan, despite the fact that the former was born nearly two decades before the latter and died nearly 5 decades earlier.  Like Morgan, Woods let school at an early age (age 10) and after an apprenticeship to a machinist also learned blacksmithing.  Like Morgan, Woods continued his schooling while working and learning the machinist repair trade.  Ove the next decade Woods would work as a fireman and then engineer. However, despite his talent he would always be stymied by racial discrimination.  In 1880, Woods moved to Cincinnati and established his own machine shop, which eventually became the Woods Electrical Company.  There he would labor to invent devices that resulted in more than 60 patents.

In December 1884, Woods obtained a patent for a telephone transmitter, an apparatus that conducted sound over an electrical current. Whhile Alexander Graham Bell had already developed a telephonic device almost a decade earlier, Woodss instrument was considerably superior to any models then in use.  The physical properties by which the device operated are still employed in modern telephones. The patent was purchased by  Alexander Graham bell's American Bell Telephone Company. The lucrative patent sale aabled Woods to devote himself  entirely to his own research.  One of his most important inventions was the "troller," a grooved metal wheel that enabled street cars (later known as "trolleys") to collect electric power from overhead wires.

Woods also created the first telegraph service that allowed messages to be sent from moving trains. This invention dramatically improved railroad safety. Woods also invented several improvements to the airbrakes used on locomotives and other large machines. Woods' patent for the train telegraph was challenged by Thomas Edison.  The two went to court.  Woods won.  Edison offered to make Woods a business partner.  Woods side eyed Edison and said, "Naaahhhh."  Woods' Blackdar detected Edison's nefariousness, so Woods decided to remain independent. 

Woods, like Morgan, adopted a pseudo-identity to buffer the vicious racial prejudice of his era.  He would often refer to himself as an Australian Aborigine rather than an AA.

 

 

 

This is flawed and inaccurate. He did not "invent" the things as they are often clalimed. Perhaps I will address them later. What he did is he 'added to', existing technologies, none of which he originated. Also, his mother was half native American, her other half is not stated, and although his father was black he (Granville T. Woods) was still a mixed race person.

Edited by prodigalson1

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1 hour ago, prodigalson1 said:

I am not being a wise guy. Can you name a couple of his acheivemnets off the top of your head? Can you name one? I am googling something else at the moment. I do know how to use google.

He deserves mention for his surgical accomplishments. Like a lot of surgeons he has a giant ego that fueled his desire to constantly do cutting edge things. Perhaps his most famous accomplishment is the Binder twin separation. A friend of mine has another friend whose child was afflicted with a disorder called neurofibromatosis. It causes tumors to grow throughout the body on nerve tissue - including in the brain. One such tumor that would have killed him grew near his brainstem. The brainstem is so delicate a lot of neurosurgeons won't operate on it. it runs the autonomic nervous system, which regulates heartbeat, breathing, and so forth. It is difficult to visualize and dangerous to work near; if it swells at all, death is the result. Carson agreed to operate and managed to remove the tumor.

Carson was a brilliant surgeon. But he is not without his flaws. He is a creationist, which is difficult to understand; creationism and science are diametrically opposed. And he appears to be an absentee administrator at HUD.

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56 minutes ago, Evil Yoda said:

He deserves mention for his surgical accomplishments. Like a lot of surgeons he has a giant ego that fueled his desire to constantly do cutting edge things. Perhaps his most famous accomplishment is the Binder twin separation. A friend of mine has another friend whose child was afflicted with a disorder called neurofibromatosis. It causes tumors to grow throughout the body on nerve tissue - including in the brain. One such tumor that would have killed him grew near his brainstem. The brainstem is so delicate a lot of neurosurgeons won't operate on it. it runs the autonomic nervous system, which regulates heartbeat, breathing, and so forth. It is difficult to visualize and dangerous to work near; if it swells at all, death is the result. Carson agreed to operate and managed to remove the tumor.

Carson was a brilliant surgeon. But he is not without his flaws? He is a creationist, which is difficult to understand; creationism and science are diametrically opposed. And he appears to be an absentee administrator at HUD.

1

And what about the brilliant white, Asian and Spanish surgeons? Can you name any of them of similar accomplishment?

Dr.Carson's greatest achievement seems to be that he is black and it is for that, that he receives special mention. He is neither a groundbreaker nor an innovator. In my opinion, and verifiable facts support my opinion.

Edited by prodigalson1
forgot my question mark

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11 minutes ago, kandace said:

Egos are being bruised.  Good.  

Personally, I mean no disrespect for your hard work and efforts. I just prefer fact to fancy. I welcome any factual corrections to anything I've said here. Keep doing what you are doing, obviously many people are enjoying it.

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5 hours ago, Evil Yoda said:

I think I told you about Vivien Thomas when you did another one of these. Are duplicates allowed? Thomas as a medical pioneer who generally did not receive due credit for his work.

 I believe i saw movie on HBO call "Something the Lord Made" that portrayed Vivien Thomas

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Friday was the anniversary of Dr Bernard Harris becoming the fist AA to walk in space ......

He was a surgeon  and a doctor before joining the space program and continues bringing science and math programs to youth today ......

I shared his story with my coworkers on Friday ......

Edited by Eastside Terp

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5 hours ago, paulsebastian said:

 I believe i saw movie on HBO call "Something the Lord Made" that portrayed Vivien Thomas

Brilliant man, a brilliant man, made me get a lump in the throat.Excellently portrayed by Mos Def. I watched it twice and I rarely watch movies twice. 

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